The cows are divided into two categories according to the beta casein protein found in their milk.

  1. Bos Taurus
    This category of cows mainly produce A1 protein milk. All the exotic breed cows like HF, Jersey etc. comes under this category.
  2. Bos Indicus
    This category of cows produce A2 protein milk. All the pure Indian breed cows come under this category.

Few examples of Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus

The milk produced from cows contains 87% water and 13% solids. The detailed composition of milk is,

The beta-casein proteins found in cow’s milk are made of a string of 209 amino acids all linked together. The difference between A1 and A2 amazingly is just one of those amino acids. With A1 milk, number 67 is a histidine instead of a proline! The proline binds very tightly to the amino acids on either side of it where the histidine does not. The histidine breaks off forming a peptide of a string of 7 amino acids called beta-casomorphin-7. Casomorphins have opioid (narcotic) properties and are not digested well. This apparently lead to health issues.
It may seem surprising, but this tiny difference in the protein structure can have a major effect when the protein is digested.

Release of beta-casomorphin-7

The various problems associated with A1 milk are:

  • Autism
  • Diabetes-type 1
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Cardiac problems
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Mental disorders
  • Parkinsons
  • Schizophrenia
  • Obesity
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Intolerance
  • Bloating

There are many physical difference between Indian breed (Bos Indicus) and Cross breed (Bos Tourus) of cows, which can be easily identified; few of them are mentioned below,

Comparision between Indian and Cross breed cows